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Stephen Long Stephen Long
Robert Emerson Professor
Department of Crop Sciences
(217) 333-2487; stevel@life.uiuc.edu 
Donald Ort Donald Ort
USDA-ARS and Professor
Department of Crop Sciences
(217) 333-2093;d-ort@illinois.edu 

SoyFACE Exploring the Effects of Increasing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Ozone on Agricultural Systems


Introduction: SoyFACE is the first facility in the world to investigate how the increases in both atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) concentrations that will occur over the first half of this century will affect crops under open-air conditions. The facility uses Free Air Concentration Enrichment. Computer controlled rings of pipes release CO2 or/and O3 on the upwind side of the ring according to wind speed to give a constant elevation of the gas within the ring. These 20m (70 ft) diameter rings are the circles shown in the plan below. The facility is the first to show how these two pollutants are affecting the yields of the two most widely grown crops of the contiguous 48 states, soybean and corn, under open-air conditions.


soyface The SoyFACE Site:
An 80-acre (32 ha) research field, with an annual corn-soybean rotation at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.
· 40°02’23” N
· 88°13’58” W
· Elevation: 230 m a.s.l.
· Liquid CO2 stored in 50-ton tank on the west edge of the field
· O3 generated on site
· Drought treatment in each plot

Aims and Objectives
To integrate scientific disciplines to determine: ·
· The responses of soybean and corn to the future atmosphere.
· Genotypes and practices that overcome the negative effects of
ozone while gaining from the positive effects of rising CO2.
· Effects of increased CO2 on soil quality and carbon storage.
· Effects of the future atmosphere on nitrogen and water use.
· Effects of atmospheric change on yield and seed quality.
· The effects of atmospheric change on gene expression.
· Crop adaptation to the changes that have already occurred.


Field Layout and Design
· Sixteen experimental Soybean plots: four elevated CO2 (550 ppm CO2), four elevated O3 (1.2 times ambient ozone level), four elevated CO2 and O3 (550 ppm CO2 and 1.2 x ambient O3), and four control rings.
· Eight corn plots: four CO2 FACE plots and four control rings.
· Each plot is 4000 sq. ft. (350 m2) with fifty-two 40 sq. ft. (3.4 m2) subplots.
· Row Spacing: 15-inch soybean and 30-inch corn.
· A common cultivar, soybean 93B15 and corn 34N43, occupy half of the respective rings, a range of cultivars are planted in the other half.
· Rotation Cycle: Annual rotation of corn and soybean.

Different research teams make measurements during in the 2002 crop.

Acknowledgements: The SoyFACE facility and project were launched with enabling funding from the Sentinel program of C-FAR (Illinois Council for Food and Agricultural Research). With this key funding in place, ADM, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Pioneer Hi-Bred, USDA-ARS, and USDA-NRI have provided funding and further support that has greatly expanded and enhanced the facility
.yield data

Department of Crop Sciences
College of Agriculture, Consumer and Environmental Sciences
University of Illinois Extension
Copyright © 2004 University of Illinois
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